Every spring, around 150 species of birds migrate thousands of miles to
Vermont, where they are greeted by thousands of birdwatchers. Have you
ever wondered why those birds migrate? And why so many people watch
One surprising reason songbirds migrate north in the spring is the ample
availability of caterpillars. The tropics provide adequate food for
adult birds in the winter when food is scarce in the north, but the
nesting habitat and food supply aren’t adequate for raising chicks. Many
migratory songbird chicks need thousands of insects—more than 90
percent of them caterpillars—to grow to adulthood. Migration solves that
People watch birds for many reasons: their beauty, their fascinating
variety, their important place in our local ecosystem, and their role as
canaries in the environmental mineshaft. Audubon Vermont welcomes
everyone, for every reason.
Monitoring Vermont’s Bird Population
A female eastern bluebird gathers nesting material, while the male holds a spider. Photo by Mark Boyd/Audubon Photography Awards.
With its century-old annual bird counts and its new, more focused
Climate Watch counts, the National Audubon Society’s regional chapters
are able to monitor the health of our bird populations. The bad news is
that bird counts have steadily declined over the past decades, primarily
due to habitat loss, greatly exacerbated by climate change. Two-thirds
of North American bird species are at risk.
The good news is that Audubon Vermont and its sister chapters are
already implementing many community education programs to help mitigate
the negative effects, helping to protect not only birds but all other
animals in our ecosystem.
A red-breasted nuthatch feeds on the seeds of a native pine cone. Photo by Peggy Cadigan/Audubon Photography Awards.
Pat and Sophie Benzie are a case in point. Seven years ago, they
purchased a large piece of forested property with a small 1930s cabin in
South Pomfret. Soon after, during a seminar on forest management hosted
by Vermont Coverts, they heard presentations from Vermont Fish &
Wildlife, foresters including Andy McGovern from Tamarack Forestry and
Land Management, and many others, including conservation biologist Steve
Hagenbuch from Audubon Vermont.
An iridescent blue male indigo bunting. Photo by Jessica Nelson/Audubon Photography Awards.
Pat and Sophie made a point of speaking with Steve, and he was happy to
walk their property with them. Steve pointed out different bird habitat
areas, problems like invasive plants, and ways to improve the habitat,
particularly for birds; for example, creating micro clearings about the
size created by one fallen oak tree. Now Steve is helping them rewrite
their forest management plan for the next 10 years.
Working with Steve, Pat says, “has dramatically changed how we view the
property. Being aware of what’s going on with the birds makes being
there much more satisfying . . . bird conservation seems like a pretty
Education and Programs
In similar partnerships with Audubon Vermont, dairy farmers are
protecting meadowland birds by adjusting hay-cutting schedules;
vegetable farmers are creating bird- and bee-friendly habitats around
their gardens; and commercial sugar-makers are increasing the resilience
of their sugarbushes by leaving snags and letting other tree species
grow among the maples.
A female pine grosbeak rests on a native staghorn sumac branch. Photo by Rejean Turgeon/GreatBackyard Bird Count.
In return, the farmers and sugar-makers receive planning assistance,
grants to defray some of the costs, and brand recognition from being in
the programs. According to Gwen Causer, an Audubon Vermont environmental
educator, all of these programs have been well received, opening up
large tracts of healthier habitats for birds and the insects they feed
on. “The sugaring season is short but the sugarbush is there all year
long,” Gwen points out.
Activities for large landowners can be scaled down easily to any
woodlot, backyard, or garden. Audubon Vermont provides a wealth of
resources on its website to help homeowners and renters get started and
will happily answer questions via email.
As the Benzies learned, perhaps the first effective action any landowner
should take is to replace invasive plants with local varieties. Our
native birds, plants, and insects evolved together into an
interconnected ecosystem: plants provide food and habitat, insects
provide pollination services, and birds spread seeds and keep insect
populations in check. Non-native plants do not provide the same quality
of nutrition or breeding habitat for either birds or insects. An oak
tree, for example, can host more than 450 species of caterpillars; the
non-native ginkgo tree hosts only five.
The Audubon Vermont website has a database of native plants that are
good hosts for birds and pollinators, searchable by zip code, type of
plant, and type of bird. There is even a page of “superstar” natives,
ranked by the number of caterpillar species they can host and the types
of food they provide.
Individual Efforts Have a Big Impact
A Cape May warbler rests in a flowering crab apple tree. Photo by Janet Pellegrini/Audubon Photography Awards.
Pat described Audubon Vermont’s programs as “very practical functions
that don’t ask for big sacrifices or dramatic changes in your world.”
Gwen couldn’t agree more, adding, “These individual efforts, when taken
together, can have a big impact.”
Audubon Vermont also provides educational programs for children and
teens, including school field trips and summer camps at the Green
Mountain Audubon Center in Huntington, 255 acres of an old sheep farm
with hiking trails, forest, a beaver pond, ancient sugarbush, and land
along the Huntington River. Committed to equity, diversity, and
inclusion, Audubon Vermont has an agreement with the Western Abenaki
that acknowledges them as the historical stewards of the land and
recognizes their right to harvest the natural resources surrounding the
center. The general public is welcome to visit and—of course—watch
Green Mountain Audubon Center
255 Sherman Hollow Road